While doing a hardware IOT project at AXPulse, I got a chance to explore Arduino and Raspberry PI. So if you are confused, which one to use when, please give it a read.

Arduino and Raspberry PI in a nutshell:

Arduino is open platform small prototyping board based off a microcontroller for performing single task over again and again. On the other hand raspberry PI is a small single board computer with Linux Operating system called Raspbian and supports running multiple programs simultaneously. The distinction between both of them is that what they are designed to do and how they work.

Arduino UNO:

Arduino is basically a motherboard which contains single reprogrammable 8 bit AVR chip called microcontroller (ATmega328) .Arduino can execute code like other computer but they are very slow computer with very small amount of memory and storage. Such devices are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. Rather than implementing entirely solution on hardware, software can be written with specific function targeting specific hardware.

Specification:

Microcontroller ATmega328P
Operating Voltage 5V
Digital I/O Pins 14
Flash Memory 32 KB
SRAM 2 KB
EEPROM 1 KB


Conclusion (why you choose Arduino?):

Well if you are beginner and looking with those projects which focused on performing single simple task but realistic then Arduino is good to go. For example your refrigerator/TV has a microcontroller which helps perform single functions effortlessly. They have some defined application and you can program it to control the specified appliance. It is less costly than Raspberry Pi and offers great support for low-power applications.

Raspberry PI:

Raspberry pi on the other hand is fully functional small PC.it has full blown 4 core processor ARM Cortex A53 (PI 3) and enough memory and storage to boot an operating system.it contains HDMI Ports, RAM and USB port to attach keyboard and mouse and with some basic coding knowledge we can configure an OS on Raspberry and can use as media streaming device, running a web server or VPNs.

Specification:

SoC (Socket on chip) Broadcom BCM2837
CPU 4× ARM Cortex-A53, 1.2GHz
GPU Broadcom VideoCore IV
RAM 1GB LPDDR2 (900 MHz)
Networking 100 Ethernet, 2.4GHz 802.11n wireless
Bluetooth Bluetooth 4.1 Classic, Bluetooth Low Energy
Storage microSD
Digital I/O Pins 40-pin
Ports HDMI, 3.5mm analogue audio-video jack, 4× USB 2.0, Ethernet,Camera Serial Interface (CSI), Display Serial Interface (DSI)


Conclusion (why you choose Raspberry PI?):

The grace of Raspberry Pi lies in the fact that it can be enriched with various slots for using external devices i.e. HDMI Port, microSD card slot, USB drive etc. On the Raspberry Pi you have a functional computer with operating system already installed and set up as you like which can make something similar to a smart phone, a printer, and a server etc., you then need to install some libraries to help you control the GPIO pins. It also needs little power, but the current draw is over a hundred times greater than with 8 bit micro controllers.

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